Investigation of new particle formation at the summit of Mt. Tai, China

Abstract
To date, few comprehensive field observations of new particle formation (NPF) have been carried out at mountaintop sites in China. In this study, simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution, trace gases, meteorological parameters, and mass concentration and chemical composition of PM2:5 were performed at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534ma.s.l.) from 25 July to 24 August 2014 (Phase I), 21 September to 9 December 2014 (Phase II), and 16 June to 7 August 2015 (Phase III) to investigate characteristics and favorable conditions of NPF in a relatively clean mountaintop environment. The NPF events were identified based on particle size distribution measured by the neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS), and 66 such events were observed during a period of 164 days – corresponding to an occurrence frequency of 40 %. The formation rates of 3 nm particles (J3) and growth rates were in the ranges of 0.82–25.04 cm-3 s-1 and 0.58–7.76 nm h-1, respectively. On average, the condensation sink (CS), O3 concentration, air temperature, and relative humidity were lower, whereas the SO2 concentration was higher on NPF days than that on non-NPF days. The CS on Mt. Tai was at a low level and lower CS was critical for NPF. NPF events were common when wind came from the east-southeast and west-southwest, which was probably associated with relatively lower CS in the east-southeast and higher SO2 concentration in the west-southwest. O3 was not a governing factor for NPF in this study, and a high level of NOx concentration might be responsible for the decreased O3 concentration on NPF days. Three categories of backward trajectories were classified, among which the continental air mass was the majority. The continental air mass passing through more polluted areas (denoted as Type I) favored NPF because of enhanced SO2 concentration and potential ammonia with it. An in-depth analysis of SO2 indicated that sulfuric acid was a dominant precursor on Mt. Tai; meanwhile, biogenic organics released from ambient forests in warm seasons and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds emitted from domestic heating in cold seasons also promoted NPF.
Authors...
  • Ganglin Lu 1
  • Xiao Sui 1
  • Jianmin Chen 1,2
  • Rohan Jayaratne 3
  • Abdelwahid Mellouki 1,4
  1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China
  2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  3. International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD4001, Australia
  4. Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS, 45071 Orléans CEDEX 02, France

 Direct sampling of sub-μm atmospheric particulate organic matter at sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

Abstract
The chemical characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still a challenge. Herein we present the novel modular “Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online” (CHARON) particle inlet coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria), The PTR-TOF 6000 X2 detects organic analytes in real-time at sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. The CHARON inlet consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency >99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation, an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization. With an enrichment factor of 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (lower enrichment for particles in the 60-to-120 nm diameter range), the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 system detects particulate organic matter online and in real-time down to 200 pg m-3. Proton transfer from hydronium ions quantitatively ionizes almost the full range of organic analytes in the intermediate to low volatility range. The high mass resolution (R > 6000) and mass accuracy (< 10 ppm) of the Ionicon PTR-TOF 6000 X2 allows to assign elemental compositions to organic analyte ions over a large mass range. We will present a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 instrument and first results from ambient air measurements in Innsbruck (Austria).

The development of CHARON was funded through the PIMMS ITN, which was supported by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement number 287382. J.L. received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 690958 (MARSU).

Authors...
  • Markus Müller 1,2
  • Andreas Klinger 1
  • Gregor Mayramhof 1
  • Joris Leglise 3
  • Armin Wisthaler 2, 4
    1. IONICON Analytik GmbH., Innsbruck, Austria
    2. Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    3. CNRS-ICARE/University of Orleans, Orleans, France
    4. Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

 Aerosol Chemistry Investigations by CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS

Abstract
Scientific progress in organic aerosol chemistry is still hampered by the lack of analytical methods that comprehensively and quantitatively characterize the organic composition of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Recently, the “Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online” (CHARON) particle inlet has been introduced, enabling proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) instruments to characterize particulate-bound organics down to pg m-3 levels. Herein, we will demonstrate the potential of the CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS for aerosol chemistry and physics studies. Based on results from experiments on 36 pure compounds we will show how qualitative (elemental composition) and quantitative analyses (mass concentrations) can be corrected for biases caused by analyte ion fragmentation in the PTR-ToF-MS analyzer. We will further show how bulk elemental ratios (O:C, H:C) of urban aerosol and monoterpene-derived SOA compare with parallel TOF-AMS measurements and reported literature values. We will also compare the volatility of monoterpene-derived SOA on a molecular level as directly measured in thermodenuder experiments and predicted from the 2D-volatility basis set using the CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS-derived chemical composition. The implications for the aerosol chemistry of monoterpene-derived SOA will be discussed.

The development of CHARON was funded through the PIMMS ITN, which was supported by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement number 287382. J.L. and T.O. received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 690958 (MARSU).

Authors...
  • Joris Leglise 1
  •  Markus Müller 2,3
  • Tobias Otto 4
  • Armin Wisthaler 3, 5
    1. CNRS-ICARE/University of Orleans, Orleans, France
    2. IONICON Analytik GmbH., Innsbruck, Austria
    3. Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    4. Leibniz-Institut für Troposhärenforschung e.V., Leipzig, Germany
    5. Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Direct sampling of sub-μm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

  • American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting, New Orleans 11-15 December 2017
  • Poster file
Abstract
A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular “Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online” (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm < DP < 120 nm) we boost the already excellent limits of detection of the PTR-TOF 6000 X2 system to unprecedented levels. We demonstrate that particulate organic analytes of mass concentrations down to 100 pg m-3 can be detected on-line and in single-minute time-resolutions. In addition, PTR-MS allows for a quantitative detection of almost the full range of particulate organics of intermediate to low volatility. With the high mass resolution (R > 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses.
Authors...
  • Markus Müller 1,2
  • Andreas Klinger 2
  • Gregor Mayramhof 2
  • Joris Leglise 3
  • Tobias Otto 4
  • Armin Wisthaler 1, 5
    1. Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    2. IONICON Analytik GmbH., Innsbruck, Austria
    3. CNRS-ICARE/University of Orleans, Orleans, France
    4. Leibniz-Institut für Troposhärenforschung e.V., Leipzig, Germany
    5. Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Interfacial photochemistry of biogenic surfactants: a major source of abiotic volatile organic compounds?

Abstract
Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth’s radiation budget.
Authors...
  • Martin Brüggemann 1,∆,
  • Nathalie Hayeck 1,∆,
  • Chloé Bonnineau 2,
  • Stéphane Pesce 2,
  • Peter A. Alpert 1,†,
  • Sébastien Perrier 1,
  • Christoph Zuth 3,
  • Thorsten Hoffmann 3,
  • Jianmen Chen 4
  • Christian George1,*
  1. Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, IRCELYON, F-69626, Villeurbanne, France
  2. Irstea, UR MALY, centre de Lyon-Villeurbanne, F-69616 Villeurbanne, France
  3. Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz, Germany
  4. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Fudan Tyndall Centre, Shanghai 200433, China
    ∆These authors contributed equally.
    †now at: Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland

Investigation of diverse bacteria in cloud water at Mt. Tai, China

Abstract
Bacteria are abundant in atmospheric water phase with the potential to influence atmospheric processes and human health, yet relatively little information is known about the bacterial characteristics at high altitudes. Here we investigated the bacterial community by high throughput sequencing in 24 cloud water samples collected from September 26 to October 31, at the summit of Mt. Tai (36°15′ N, 117°06′ E, 1534 m a.s.l) in China. Diverse bacterial population were identified and the gram-negative bacteria contributed the majority of total bacteria including Proteobacteria (81.6%) and Bacteroidetes (3.9%), followed by gram-positive bacteria Firmicutes (7.1%) and Actinobacteria (2.3%). These gram-negative taxa mainly inhabited in leaf-surface and cold environments. Meanwhile bacteria involved in the cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei formation were observed such as Sphingomonas (6.7%), Pseudomonas (4.1%), and Bacillus (1.1%). In addition, Sphingmonas was more active than that in daytime and participated in the cloud chemistry process. Meanwhile O3 and SO2 critically contributed to the variation of bacterial community. It is the first report on the bacterial community structure of cloud water over Asian area. Our results can serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, and biologists.
Authors...
  • Caihong Xu a,
  • MinWei a,
  • Jianmin Chen a,b,
  • Xiao Sui a,
  • Chao Zhua,
  • Jiarong Li a,
  • Lulu Zheng b,
  • Guodong Sui b,
  • Weijun Li a,
  • WenxingWang a,
  • Qingzhu Zhang a,
  • Abdelwahid Mellouki b,c
  1. Environment Research Institute, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji’nan 250100, China
  2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP), Fudan Tyndall Centre, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University,
    Shanghai 200433, China
  3. Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS, 45071 Orléans cedex 02, France

Bacterial characterization in ambient submicron particles during severe haze episodes at Ji’nan, China

Abstract
In January 2014, severe haze episodes which sweep across Chinese cities have attracted public concern and interest at home and abroad. In addition to the physicochemical properties of air pollutants, bacteria are thought to be responsible for the spread of respiratory diseases and various allergies. We attempted the bacterial characterization of submicron particles (PM0.18–0.32, PM0.32–0.56, and PM0.56–1) under severe haze episodes using high-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR detecting system based on 21 samples collected from January to March 2014 at Ji’nan, China. The high bacterial concentration in PM0.32–0.56 (7314 cells m− 3), PM0.18–0.32(7212 cells m− 3), and PM0.56–1 (6982 cells m− 3) showed significant negative correlations with SO2, NO2, and O3. Under sufficient sequencing depth, 37 phyla, 71 classes, 137 orders, 236 families, and 378 genera were classified, and the bacterial community structure varied significantly in different size fractions. For example, Holophagaceae (Acidobacteria) in PM0.32–0.56 showed 6-fold higher abundance than that in PM0.18–0.32. Moreover, functional categories and bacterial species (Lactococcus piscium, Pseudomonas fragi, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Pseudomonas cichorii) that may potentially be responsible for infections and allergies were also discovered. Source track analysis showed that the ambient bacteria mainly originated from soils, leaf surfaces, and feces. Our results highlighted the importance of airborne microbial communities by understanding the concentration, structure, ecological and health effects, especially those in submicron particles during haze episodes.
Authors...
  • Caihong Xu a,
  • MinWei a,
  • Jianmin Chen a,b,
  • XinfengWang a,
  • ChaoZhu a,
  • Jiarong Li a,
  • Lulu Zheng b,
  • Guodong Sui b,
  • Weijun Li a,
  • WenxingWang a,
  • Qingzhu Zhang a,
  • Abdelwahid Mellouki a,c
  1. Environment Research Institute, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji’nan 250100, China
  2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP), Fudan Tyndall Centre,Department of Environmental Science&Engineering, FudanUniversity, Shanghai 200433, China
  3. Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS, 45071 Orléans cedex 02, France

Fungi diversity in PM2. 5 and PM1 at the summit of Mt. Tai: abundance, size distribution, and seasonal variation

Abstract
Fungi are ubiquitous throughout the near-surface atmosphere, where they represent an important component of primary biological aerosol particles. This study combined internal transcribed spacer region sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the ambient fungi in fine (PM2. 5, 50 % cutoff aerodynamic diameter Da50 =  2.5 µm, geometric standard deviation of collection efficiency σg =  1.2) and submicron (PM1, Da50 =  1 µm, σg =  1.2) particles at the summit of Mt. Tai located in the North China Plain, China. Fungal abundance values were 9.4  ×  104 and 1.3  ×  105 copies m−3 in PM2. 5 and PM1, respectively. Most of the fungal sequences were from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The fungal community showed a significant seasonal shift across different size fractions according to Metastats analysis and the Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test. The abundance of Glomerella and Zasmidium increased in larger particles in autumn, whereas Penicillium, Bullera, and Phaeosphaeria increased in smaller particles in winter. Environmental factors, namely Ca2+, humidity, and temperature, were found to be crucial for the seasonal variation in the fungal community. This study might serve as an important reference for fungal contribution to primary biological aerosol particles.
Authors...
  • Caihong Xu 1,
  • Min Wei 1,a,
  • Jianmin Chen 1,2,3
  • Chao Zhu 1,
  • Jiarong Li 1,
  • Ganglin Lv 1,
  • Xianmang Xu 1,
  • Lulu Zheng 2,
  • Guodong Sui 2,
  • Weijun Li 1,
  • Bing Chen 1,
  • Wenxing Wang 1,
  • Qingzhu Zhang 1,
  • Aijun Ding 3
  • Abdelwahid Mellouki 1,4
  1. Environment Research Institute, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
  2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Fudan Tyndall Centre, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
  3. Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
  4. Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement, CNRS, 45071 Orléans Cedex 02, France
    anow at: College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250100, China

Tropospheric Aqueous-Phase Oxidation of Isoprene-Derived Dihydroxycarbonyl Compounds

Abstract
The dihydroxycarbonyls 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone (DHBO) and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylpropanal (DHMP) formed from isoprene oxidation products in the atmospheric gas phase under low-NO conditions can be expected to form aqSOA in the tropospheric aqueous phase because of their solubility. In the present study, DHBO and DHMP were investigated concerning their radical-driven aqueous-phase oxidation reaction kinetics. For DHBO and DHMP the following rate constants at 298 K are reported: k(OH + DHBO) = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 109 L mol–1 s–1, k(NO3 + DHBO) = (2.6 ± 1.6) × 106 L mol–1 s–1, k(SO4+ DHBO) = (2.3 ± 0.2) × 107 L mol–1 s–1, k(OH + DHMP) = (1.2 ± 0.1) × 109 L mol–1 s–1, k (NO3 + DHMP) = (7.9 ± 0.7) × 106 L mol–1 s–1, k(SO4 + DHMP) = (3.3 ± 0.2) × 107 L mol–1 s–1, together with their respective temperature dependences. The product studies of both DHBO and DHMP revealed hydroxydicarbonyls, short chain carbonyls, and carboxylic acids, such as hydroxyacetone, methylglyoxal, and lactic and pyruvic acid as oxidation products with single yields up to 25%. The achieved carbon balance was 75% for DHBO and 67% for DHMP. An aqueous-phase oxidation scheme for both DHBO and DHMP was developed on the basis of the experimental findings to show their potential to contribute to the aqSOA formation. It can be expected that the main contribution to aqSOA occurs via acid formation while other short-chain oxidation products are expected to back-partition into the gas phase to undergo further oxidation there.
Authors...
  • Otto, T.,
  • Stieger, B.,
  • Mettke, P.,
  • Herrmann, H.,
    Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Atmospheric Chemistry Department (ACD), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany

Tropospheric Aqueous-Phase OH Oxidation Chemistry: Current Understanding, Uptake of Highly Oxidized Organics and Ist Effects

  • ACS Symposium Series, in review
  • DOI:
Abstract
Authors...
  • A. Tilgner,
  • Herrmann, H.,
    Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Atmospheric Chemistry Department (ACD), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany

Chemical characterization of organic matter in marine environment – Analysis of nitrogen containing organic compounds

  • The 16th international conference on Chemistry and the Environment (ICCE 2017), 18 – 22 June 2017 Oslo
Abstract
The oceans are an important source for marine aerosol particles and the chemical composition of the particles determines their microphysical properties. However, there are few available field data of the composition of organic matter in the marine environment, especially on molecular level.

This study presents measurements of nitrogen containing organic compounds (free amino acids and amines) in marine field samples as an important subgroup of marine organic matter. Concerted measurements, meaning the simultaneous sampling of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer (SML) as well as marine aerosol particles (PM1) were performed at a remote atmospheric station in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO). Analytical measurements were based on derivatization with 6-Aminochinolyl-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl-carbamate (AQC) reagent and LC-MS analysis. The results of the concerted measurements show that free amino acids and amines are present in the marine compartments SML and aerosol particles. Phenylalanine could be quantified in concentration ranges between 142.18 nmol/L and 145.65 nmol/L in the SML samples and on the corresponding aerosol particles from 0.03 ng/m3 up to 0.21 ng/m3. Methylamine is present in SML samples in average concentration of 647.25 nmol/L and on the corresponding aerosol particles in concentration range between 0.36 ng/m3 and 0.69 ng/m3.

These concentrations are in the same order of magnitude compared to field studies in other marine areas. For example, concentration of free amino acids in marine seawater samples from the west coast of Scottland were also in the nmol/L range (Sommerville and Preston 2001) and free phenylalanine was detected in marine aerosol particles of eastern Mediteranean in average concentration of 0.3 ± 0.7 ng/m3 (Mandalakis, Apostolaki et al. 2010).

However, most studies focus on only one marine compartment: either aerosol particles or seawater investigations. The simultaneous determination of the amines and amino acids in the SML and in aerosol particles presented here will allow a more comprehensive analysis of nitrogen containing compounds in the marine environment including their enrichment in the SML and their transfer across the air-sea interface.

Authors...
  • Triesch N.,
  • van Pinxteren M.,
  • Herrmann, H.,
    Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Atmospheric Chemistry Department (ACD), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany

Organic matter in marine aerosol particles: chemical characterization, transfer and sources

  • The joint 14th iCACGP Quadrennial Symposium and 15th IGAC Science Conference,  25th to 29th of September 2018, Takamatsu, Kagawa, 760-0019 Japan
Abstract
The oceans are an important source for marine aerosol particles and the chemical composition of the particles determines their microphysical properties. However, there are few available field data of the composition of organic matter (OM) in the marine environment, especially on molecular level.

This study presents measurements of organic compounds (free (FAA)/combined amino acids (CAA) and proteins) in marine field samples as important subgroups of marine OM. Concerted measurements- the simultaneous sampling of bulk water (ULW), sea-surface-microlayer (SML) as well as marine aerosol particles (PM1) were performed at a remote atmospheric station in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory(CVAO).

Analytical measurements of FAA and CAA (after hydrolysis) were based on derivatization with 6-Aminochinolyl-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl-carbamate(AQC)-reagent and LC-MS analysis. Proteins were quantified as Coomassie stainable particles.

The results of the concerted measurements show that the analytes are present in all three measured marine compartments. Phenylalanine was quantified in SML samples with an enrichment factor (EF) in up to 15 compared to ULW and an EF of Phenylalanine in the corresponding aerosol particles up to 944. These results are in the same order of magnitude compared to other field studies: The EF of FAA in SML of the western Mediterreanean Sea is up to 26 (Rheinthaler et.al 2008) and the EF of total organic carbon in aerosol samples of the Atlantic ocean is up to 104/105 -depending on chlorophyll-a-concentration (van Pinxteren et.al 2017).

However, most studies focus on only one marine compartment: either aerosol particles or seawater investigations. The simultaneous determination of the analytes in aerosol particles and in SML/ULW presented here will allow a more comprehensive analysis of OM on molecular level in the marine environment including its sources in the oceans, enrichment in SML, transfer across the air-sea-interface and the chemical composition of marine aerosol particles.

Authors...
  • Triesch N.,
  • van Pinxteren M.,
  • Herrmann, H.,

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Atmospheric Chemistry Department (ACD), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany